SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
Working Together to Safeguard Children 2015 states clearly that one of the key principles underpinning safeguarding should be: "a child-centred approach: for services to be effective they should be based on a clear understanding of the needs and views of children".It is essential therefore that children and young people are enabled by professionals to participate in matters that affect them, particularly any plans or arrangements that will affect them and/or their family and are consulted with regard to processes designed to improve services both to them individually and more generally.
This guidance is new and was added to the procedures in August 2017.
- Benefits of Participation
- Barriers to Participation
- Promoting Participation
- Participation - the Role of the Social Worker
- Participation - the Role of Managers
- Processes for Consulting Children and Young People
Participation of children and young people in decisions about their lives is an essential part of growing up and, if done well, it enhances children's safety and well-being and improves services designed to support and protect them. In the world of social care participation work often take place in complex and emotionally charged situations. To be done well it requires a commitment at all levels of the organisation to reflect on and promote:
- Positive attitudes to children;
- Effective communication skills;
- Dedicated financial resources;
- Commitment to developing services which support children's participation, such as advocacy and participation services;
- Realistic expectations about what can be achived and honesty about the level of willingness is to change existing services and decisions in response to children's views.
Local authorities actively seek to ensure children and young people are consulted about decisions and processes that affect them. The Munro Review made clear that what is important to children and young people is 'reliability, honesty and continuity'. Derby City Council is committed to ensuring that children and young people are informed about what is happening to them and promotes opportunities for them to contribute to what is happening. The aim is to share and practise positive approaches to effective communication and learning through active listening. Derby City Council is committed to both speaking and listening clearly, purposefully and honestly with children and young people.
Derby City Council seeks to consider identity, diversity, culture, sexual orientation, language, disability, delayed speech, low confidence and trust in all its interactions with both children and adults.
Every member of our staff is committed to seeking and recording the views of every child they work with. They will also record the decisions that are made and the influence that the views of the child/young person have had on those decisions. Where decisions are made that are different from or contrary to the views of the child or young person this will be clearly recorded with the reasons for the decision clearly explained.
In addition, Derby City Council will ensure that systems are in place to support formal consultation with young people's groups and will seek to aggregate individual issues and concerns so that managers may consider the impact that current services have on young people. This information may be used to inform future developments.
Derby City Council CYP have a number of forums, services and processes in place to ensure the, individual and collective, views of young people are sought and appropriately reflected in both the work of the department and the future development of services and processes.
The Children in Care Council
The Children in Care Council is a participation forum for children and young people who are in care or were formally in care, with attendees ranging from ages 10 to 21. Monthly meetings are facilitated by the Participation Officer for Children in Care, along with additional consultation events throughout the year. The meetings and events offer a platform for children and young people to discuss the issues affecting them as Looked After Children; and allow young people to help shape the services that directly impact upon them. Direct or indirect feedback is sought from those engaging with the children and young people, to provide clarity and accountability regarding the outcomes from consultations. The Children In Care Council feeds into the Corporate Parenting Committee, to ensure elected members and senior officers remain updated on the views of children and young people.
The Care Leavers' Forum
The Care Leavers' Forum is facilitated by the Leaving Care Service for young people who were in care but have now left. This forum also meets on a monthly basis.
In addition, as part of the commissioned Childrens Rights Service which is provided by SOVA on behalf of Derby City Council, there is provision for advocacy for children involved in the child protection conference process. All parents are offered an advocate for their child for the initial conference. The role of the advocate is to ascertain the views of the child/young person and feed these directly or support the young person to feed these themselves into the conference process.
All children in care are sent consultation documents as part of their statutory review by the Independent Reviewing Service. These consultation forms provide an opportunity for the young people to feedback and give their views to the Independent Reviewing Officer(IRO). These are then followed up by the IRO and where appropriate fed into the review.
As well as the above there are various ad hoc meetings and conferences to gain the views of young people.
2. Benefits of Participation
Much has been written on the benefits and barriers to participation by young people in matters that affect them. In brief the benefits for children and young people are:
- Having a safe space to reflect on the events that have brought them into contact with Social Care;
- The opportunity to give their version of what has happened to them and to say what they would like to happen in the future;
- The sense of empowerment that comes from being listened to and seeing what they have said making a difference to what happens;
- The possibility of having their concerns and issues dealt with at an early stage, which could have an immediate impact for them in terms of how they identify their 'quality of life';
- The opportunity to have explained to them what is happening in the present moment and what is likely to happen in the future and what will be done to keep them (and their siblings) safe.
For parents/carers the benefits of children's participation can be:
- The opportunity (perhaps for the first time) to hear their children's views about what has happened and what they want to change;
- A model of communicating that may improve their relationship with their child(ren).
For professionals and organisations offering services to children and young people the benefits can be:
- Reinforcement of a focus on the child's safety and wellbeing;
- A self auditing tool;
- The greater likelihood of effective engagement with the Plan by the child / young person themselves;
- A focus for all professionals to work from.
3. Barriers to Participation
There are a number of barriers to participation. Broadly speaking these are:
- Structural - complex procedures and lack of clarity about responsibilities; too many changes of personnel;
- A lack of clarity about what participation is or confusion over how it will be addressed; a lack of clarity about what it can and cannot change and what it should deliver for the child, the family and the organisation;
- Competence - staff lacking in experience or having an inability to effectively communicate with children, or children of a particular age or from a particular culture;
- Capacity - a lack of time (e.g. staff too overwhelmed by other pressures)or other resources required to enable participation, thus 'rushing' or making it a 'box ticking' exercise;
- Inadequate plans that fail to be clear about who will be responsible for ensuring participation;
- Children's behaviour - can be misinterpreted and sometimes causes a barrier for professionals and carers. Those seeking to engage often need a variety of tools / methods and patience / space to deal with this to promote engagement;
- Children themselves can become disinterested and disengaged because of delays;
- Children are far more spontaneous and their timescales are far shorter;
- Professionals need to ensure that children have a variety of times, people, places and approaches to participation available to them (i.e. seeing children on their own, allowing time after traumatic events).
4. Promoting Participation
Derby City Council has a number of formal processes for seeking the participation and consultation of children and young people. Staff, carers, managers and others who come into contact with children are encouraged and enabled to see each and every interaction as a potential opportunity to develop trust and confidence such that children and young people feel able to confide and state their views and preferences in matters that affect them.
5. Participation - the Role of the Social Worker
The most important means of encouraging and enabling participation by looked after children and young people in decisions that affect them and their lives remains the relationship with their Social Worker and other significant professionals and adults in their lives.
Enabling children and young people who have not previously had opportunities to express their views is demanding and can be challenging work that requires creativity, empathy and resilience on the part of the worker. Consultations need to be planned for, reflected on and, if necessary, returned to in order that children and young people are given every opportunity to express their views.
In order for them to express views about matters that affect them it is also vital that children and young people are in possession of information and have experiences that enable them to make informed choices.
If participation is not possible or is restricted for whatever reason, steps should be taken to ensure those affected are informed of decisions as soon as practicable after they are made, and an explanation for the decision taken, together with the opportunity to make a comment and express their views.
If it is then felt that a different decision may have been appropriate, steps should be taken to reconsider the decision.
If decisions are made against people's wishes, they should be informed of the decision and the reasons for the decision should be explained. In these circumstances, the person should be informed of any rights they have to formally challenge the decision, and of the availability of the Complaints Procedure (see Complaints and Representations Procedure).
Sometimes children and young people express their preferences through their behaviour rather than through words i.e. by running away or by having tantrums. It is important to attempt to see beyond the behaviour and to try to understand what the child or young person is trying to express.
Finally, children and young people should be made aware of the systems and processes available to them if they wish to raise concerns or complain and what, if any, other forms of redress may be available to them if things go wrong.
6. Participation - the Role of Managers
Managers must ensure that social workers and/or staff have the time and resources available to them to ensure the effective participation of children and young people.
- Use supervision to consider issues relating to the Voice of the Child in ongoing cases;
- Check that records show where and how the Voice of the Child has been sought, what was said and how the child's wishes have been responded to and, if not, why not;
- Review, on a regular basis, the various methodologies whereby children's views are sought;
- Review complaints or concerns raised by children and young people and what actions have been taken to address these;
- Review compliments to build on this;
- Consider how representative issues raised by children and young people are in relation to such issues as gender, culture, sexuality and disability;
- Ensure processes designed to aggregate issues raised by children and young people are in place and are routinely being used;
- Ensure processes are in place whereby it can be fed back to both individual children and the wider group what changes have been made as a result of issues raised.
7. Processes for Consulting Children and Young People
- Children and young people can be involved in the development of services through the Children in Care Council (CiCC) and the Care Leavers' Forum;
- The Children In Care Council attend the Corporate Parenting Committee on a regular basis and feedback their ideas through this process directly to elected members and senior officers;
- Children and young people can also be involved in:
- Development of Services.
The Children in Care Council is regularly involved in the above activities, this is usually through invitation from the appropriate services or at the request of the Children in Care Council.
- Looked After Reviews and other Meetings (see Looked After Reviews Procedure).
Every Review and/or meeting relating to a child's case is an opportunity for children and young people to participate in their Care Plan and arrangements;
- Advocacy and Independent Visitors (see Advocacy and Independent Visitors Procedure).
Advocates and Independent Visitors support and assist children and young people to participate in the services offered;
- Support to children who have communication difficulties see also Children and Young People Aged 0-25 with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities Procedure.
Support and specialist services to children who have communication difficulties will always be offered. For children for whom English is not their first language a translator should be considered to enable the child to contribute. For children with communication difficulties as a result of physical or learning disabilities people who can use whatever medium of communication is most helpful to the child will be used;
- Social media.
Increasingly children and young people are becoming confident users of social media such as Facebook, texting, Twitter and other apps. We see this as an opportunity for enabling children and young people to participate in decisions about their life whether by texting their IRO or by using social media applications.