SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER
This procedure applies to all Looked After Children; It summarises the arrangements that should be made for the promotion, assessment and planning of health care for Looked After children.
This chapter should be read in conjunction with Promoting the health and well-being of looked-after children - Statutory Guidance for Local Authorities, Clinical Commissioning Groups and NHS England (March 2015) and Remands to Local Authority Accommodation or to Youth Detention Accommodation Procedure.
In November 2015, this chapter was updated to reflect revised statutory guidance for local authorities, clinical commissioning groups and NHS England on Promoting the health and well-being of looked-after children. Section 1, The Responsibilities of Local Authorities and Clinical Commissioning Groups is new. The role of the Social Worker in promoting child health is explained in Section 3, Health Care Assessments and information on Strengths and Difficulties questionnaires was added into Section 4, Health Plans.
- The Responsibilities of Local Authorities and Clinical Commissioning Groups
- Health Care Assessments
- Health Plans
1. The Responsibilities of Local Authorities and Clinical Commissioning Groups
Derby City Council, through its Corporate Parenting responsibilities, has a duty to promote the welfare of Looked After Children, including those who are Eligible and those children placed in adoptive placements. This includes promoting the child's physical, emotional and mental health; every Looked After Child needs to have a health assessment so that a health plan can be developed to reflect the child's health needs and be included as part of the child's overall Care Plan.
Southern Derbyshire Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) and NHS England have a duty to cooperate with requests from the local authority to undertake health assessments and provide any necessary support services to Looked After Children without any undue delay and irrespective of whether the placement of the child is an emergency, short term or in another CCG. This also includes services to a child or young person experiencing mental illness.
The Local Authority should always advise the CCG when a child is initially accommodated. Where there is a change in placement that will require the involvement of another CCG, the child's 'originating' CCG, outgoing (if different for the 'originating CCG) and new CCG should be informed in line with the East Midlands Protocol.
Both Local Authority and relevant CCG(s) should develop effective communications and understandings between each other as part of being able to promote children's well being.
- Looked After Children should be able to participate in decisions about their healthcare and all relevant agencies should seek to promote a culture that promotes children being listened to and which takes account of their age;
- That others involved with the child, parents, other carers, schools, etc are enabled to understand the importance of taking into account the child's wishes and feelings about how to be healthy;
- There is recognition that there needs to be an effective balance between confidentiality and providing information about a child's health. This is a sensitive area, but 'fear about sharing information should not get in the way of promoting the health of looked After Children' (see Annex C: Principles of confidentiality and consent, DfE and DoH Statutory Guidance on Promoting the Health and Well-being of Looked After Children (March 2015);
- When a child becomes Looked After, or moves into another CCG area, any treatment or service should be continued uninterrupted;
- A Looked After Child requiring health services should be able to do so without delay or any wait should 'be no longer than a child in a local area with an equivalent need';
- A Looked After Child should always be registered with a GP and Dentist near to where they live in placement;
- A child's clinical and health record will be principally located with the GP. When the child comes into local authority care, or moves placement, the GP should fast-track the transfer of the records to a new GP;
- Where a child is placed within another CCG, e.g. where the child is placed in an out of Authority Placement, (see Out of Area Placements) the 'originating CCG 'remains responsible for the health services that might be commissioned.
3. Health Care Assessments
3.1 Good Health Assessment and Planning
Role of S/W in Promoting the Child's Heath
The social worker has an important role in promoting the health and welfare of Looked After Children:
- Working in partnership with parents and carers to contribute to the health plan;
- Ensure that consents and permissions with regard to delegated authorities are obtained to avoid any delay. Note: however, should the child require emergency treatment or surgery, then every effort should be made to contact those with Parental Responsibility to both communicate this and seek for them share in providing medical consent where appropriate. Nevertheless, this must never delay any necessary medical procedure;
- Ensure that any actions identified in the Health Plan are progressed in a timely way by liaising with health relevant professionals;
- In recognising that a child's physical, emotional and mental health can impact upon their learning, where this is necessary, to liaise with the Virtual School Head to ensure as far as possible this is minimised for the child. (Should there be any delay in the child's Health Plan being actioned, the impact for the child with regard to their learning should be highlighted to the relevant health practitioners);
- To support the Looked After Child's carers in meeting the child's health needs in an holistic way; this includes sharing with them any health needs that have been identified and what additional support they should receive, as well as ensuring they have a copy of the Care Plan;
- Where a Looked After Child is undergoing health treatment, to monitor with the carers how this is being progressed and ensure that any treatment regime is being followed;
- To communicate with the carers and child's health practitioners, including dentists, those issues which have been properly delegated to the carers;
- Social Workers and health practitioners should ensure the carers have specific contact details and information on how to access relevant services, including CAMHS;
- Ensuring where appropriate that the Child has a copy of their health plan. (At the child's final review this should always be provided).
It is important that at the point of Accommodating a child, as much information as possible is understood about the child's health, especially where the child has health or behavioural needs that potentially pose a risk to themselves, their carers and others. Any such issues should be fully shared with the carers, together with an understanding as to what support they will receive as a result.
3.2 Frequency of Health Care Assessments
Each Looked After Child must have a Health Care Assessment at specified intervals as set out below.
- Statutory Guidance requires that the first Health Care Assessment be completed within 28 days of the child or young person first becoming looked after;
- For children under five years, further Health Care Assessments should occur at least once every six months;
- For children aged over five years, further Health Care Assessments should occur at least annually.
If a child is transferred from one Looked After Placement to another, it is not necessary to plan an assessment within the first month. In these circumstances, the Social Worker should furnish the carer/residential staff with a copy of the child's existing Health Care Plan.
If no plan exists, the Social Worker should arrange an assessment so that a plan can be drawn up and available for the child's first Looked After Review which will take place within 20 working.
3.3 Who carries out Health Assessments?
The first Health Care Assessment must be conducted by a registered medical practitioner. Subsequent assessments may be carried out by a registered nurse or registered midwife, who should provide the Social Worker with a written report (See Arranging Health Care Assessments).
3.4 Arranging Health Care Assessments
The Social Worker should contact the LAC Health team and liaise with the carer/residential staff to arrange the first assessment with the child's LAC paediatrician. Subsequent health assessments are carried out for all children by LAC nurses in the city and for those children placed out of area the LAC health team liaises with hosting health authority to arrange an assessment according to their local arrangements.
Before a Health Assessment takes place, social workers must fully complete Part A of the BAAF 'Initial Health Assessment Form' to ensure it is available at the time of the appointment.
In order for the Health Assessment to be conducted, the social worker must ensure that the parent(s) have given consent - this will usually be recorded on the Placement Information Record. Where a Care Order is in place, evidence of this and the Local Authority consent will suffice and a confirmatory letter should be sent to the LAC Health team when the Order is made.
The health professional conducting the assessment will complete a relevant BAAF Form and a Health Plan, which should be passed to the child's social worker - who should give copies to the child's carer.
4. Health Plans
Each Looked After Child's Care Plan must incorporate a Health Plan in time for the first Looked After Review, with arrangements as necessary incorporated into the child's Placement Plan/Placement Information Record.
This Plan must be reviewed after each subsequent Health Care Assessment and at the child's Looked After Review or as circumstances change.
4.1 Strength and Difficulty Questionnaires
Understanding a Looked After Child's emotional, mental health and behavioural needs is as important as their physical health. All local authorities are required to use the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaires (SDQs) to assess the emotional needs of each child before a child has been in care for 12 months. The timing should coincide with the closest health assessment.
The SDQ Questionnaire, along with any other tool which may be used to assist, can be used to identify the needs and be part of the child's Health Plan. It should be completed by the child's foster carer or residential worker, supported by the fostering support worker, and in consultation with the child's social worker. Support and services for the child should then be identified as required.
4.2 Out of Area Placements
Where an Out of Authority placement is sought, the Derby City Council should make a judgment with regard to the child's health needs and the ability of the services in the proposed placement area to fully meet those needs. The placing authority should seek guidance from within its own partner agencies and the potential placement area to seek such information out.
The originating CCG, the current CCG (if different) and the proposed area's CCG should be fully advised of any placement changes and to ensure that any health needs or heath plan are not disrupted through delay as a result of the move.
Where these are Placements at a Distance the Care Planning, Placement and Case Review (England) Regulations 2010 [updated] make it a requirement that the responsible authority consults with the area of placement and that Director of the responsible authority must approve the placement (see also Out of Area Placements Procedure).
Where the child's health situation is more complex, it is likely that both health and Social Care services will need to be commissioned; this will need to be undertaken jointly within the originating agencies' respective fields of responsibility together with the health and social care services in the area where the child is placed.